Dr. Piotr Goldstein

Beyond NGOs and Protest Movements: Everyday Activism in Serbia, Poland, and Hungary

Dr. Piotr Goldstein

Beyond NGOs and Protest Movements: Everyday Activism in Serbia, Poland, and Hungary

A book café in Novi Sad, Serbia, that functions as a meeting place for activists but is also a centre of activism in its own right. Piotr Goldstein

Project description

Since the 1990s, civil society – understood in a myriad of ways, but usually researched through the study of NGOs – has been viewed as a major agent in the promotion of democracy and civic engagement in Eastern Europe. In recent years, the focus has shifted to protest movements, which are seen as new, more genuine spaces of activism and as agents of social change.

This project goes beyond these two focuses by looking at forms of activism that are hard to notice because they seek neither financial support, which distinguishes them from NGOs, nor recognition, which distinguishes them from social movements and popular protests.

The project builds on earlier research conducted by Piotr Goldstein during his British Academy fellowship at the University of Manchester. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Poland, Hungary and Serbia, the project scrutinises discreet, everyday acts of citizenship, which could be considered ‘infrapolitics’ or ‘micro-politics’. They are an alternative mode of participation in contexts where other forms of activism appear impossible or ineffective, or where activists opt for a less radical, more long-term approach.


  • Long-term, multi-sited ethnography
  • Interviews
  • Visual and sensory ethnography
  • Online survey

Key questions

  • Are the same individuals involved in different forms of activism at the same time, or are different kinds of engagement the domain of different people?
  • What are the legacies of everyday activism and other forms of activism? Does involvement in everyday activist practices leave a mark on the engaged individuals and their families?
  • How inclusive is the concept of everyday activism? If the ability to participate in protest movements and work in charities/NGOs is a privilege, is everyday activism also a privilege?

Project coordination